PART 1: The following readings will provide some added context to this period.

PART 1: The following readings will provide some added context to this period. The first is an excerpt from Chapter 6 of American Yawp. The BIG thing to look at in this chapter are the causes for the events of Shay’s Rebellion and the Whiskey Rebellion and how that fits into the discussion of who should participate in the New Republic of the USA. The next article is from Britannica Encyclopedia Website that gives an entry of the events of the rule of Iturbide to his decline. The BIG thing to consider is why Iturbide was deposed and the rise of political influence of General Santa Anna. General Santa Anna will have a major role when we discuss the War for Texas Independence and the Mexican-American War.


American Yawp Chapter 6: A New NationLinks to an external site.


Britannica: Mexico – IndependenceLinks to an external site.




Read the following articles related to Mod 1 Part 1. The first two readings are excerpts from American Yawp. Sec V looks at attitudes Anglo Americans had towards Indigenous peoples and Indigenous resistance, led by Tecumseh, against the invasion of the USA. Sec VI gives more detail if the events of the War of 1812. While the US was dealing with their political troubles, so was Mexico during the Early National Period. The ThoughtCo article gives a general overview of caudillos and their influence in Latin America. The JSTOR Daily article looks at wealth and status of free Blacks in early 19th-century New Orleans prior to the acquisition by the USA. The last article looks at an interesting topic of Anglo Americans and their claim to Native American ancestry and the problematic nature of it.


Excerpts from American Yawp:


Ch. 7 sec V Native American Power and the United StatesLinks to an external site.


Ch. 7 sec VI The War of 1812Links to an external site.


ThoughtCo: What Is Caudillismo? Definition and Examples in Latin American HistoryLinks to an external site.


JSTOR Daily: The Free People of Color of Pre-Civil War New OrleansLinks to an external site.


Huff Post Article: Why White Americans Love To Claim Native Ancestry


Module 12 Videos



The following video looks at the reign of Mexico’s First Emperor and this quick demise from national hero to exile.






The following video clips will look at Indigenous resistance in North America, with Tecumseh and the War of 1812 and the Maya Caste War in Mexico. And yes, the Maya are still around, as are other Indigenous groups in the continental USA.


The Caste War Overview




Tecumseh and the War of 1812


(view from 21:00 – 46:13)








Write 1 paragraph for each question (4 -6 sentences / 250 + word count). Use parenthetical citations when referencing the lecture PPT, for example use (Mod 12) for Module 12 lecture and reference the name of the reading articles and the title of the video clips when citing those resources.


What did you find most interesting/thought-provoking/upsetting?

How does this module connect to current events/issues?

How does this module connect to you? (this is not a literal question and even if you think it does not, it does, this is where your critical thinking cap comes in. Think of gender roles, race, class, job specialization, trade as in shopping, consumerism, and technology)



























.Assignment two




PSA #5

Overview: Manifest Destiny was a belief that the United States was destined by God to expand from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. This belief was used to justify the displacement of Native Americans and the annexation of Mexican territory. Both Native Americans and Chicanos, who are Mexican Americans, were disproportionately affected by Manifest Destiny.


Primary Source Analysis (PSA) #5


If you are new to Canvas, review the Canvas Student Guide Assignment Submissions VideoLinks to an external site.


PSA #5: Manifest Destiny




Use the lecture, readings, and videos to help you understand the historical context (the time and place of these events) of the primary sources, but base your prompt answer/argument and the bulk of your paper on information found in the required primary sources.

• Make sure to cite the primary sources using in-text citations, (Doc 1) John O’Sullivan Declares America’s Manifest Destiny, 1845 and (Doc 2) Cherokee Petition Protesting Removal, 1836

Consider the following questions when you are writing your essay. Who wrote the primary source and how did their social location (race, class, gender, sexuality, etc.) influence their writing and the argument they made in the primary source. There is always an argument of some kind in primary sources; some are more obvious than others.

• Make sure the paper submission is 2 pages in long (250 word count) and double-spaced.

• This is not a research paper, so no work cited page is needed and what is really important is your own analysis of the two primary sources.

So, deep breath and put on our detective hat and squeeze as much information out of the sources as possible. You got this!


Manifest Destiny


Prompt: What false ideals are woven into the ideals of Manifest Destiny and how was is resisted?


Required Primary Sources


Doc 1: John O’Sullivan Declares America’s Manifest Destiny, 1845


John Louis O’Sullivan, a popular editor and columnist, articulated the long-standing American belief in the God-given mission of the United States to lead the world in the transition to democracy. He called this America’s “manifest destiny.” This idea motivated wars of American expansion. He explained this idea in the following essay where he advocated adding Texas to the United States.


Texas is now ours… Her star and her stripe may already be said to have taken their place in the glorious blazon of our common nationality; and the sweep of our eagle’s wing already includes within its circuit the wide extent of her fair and fertile land. She is no longer to us a mere geographical space–a certain combination of coast, plain, mountain, valley, forest and stream. She is no longer to us a mere country on the map. She comes within the dear and sacred designation of Our Country… other nations have undertaken to intrude themselves … in a spirit of hostile interference against us, for the avowed object of thwarting our policy and hampering our power, limiting our greatness and checking the fulfillment of our manifest destiny to overspread the continent allotted by Providence for the free development of our yearly multiplying millions. This we have seen done by England, our old rival and enemy; and by France, strangely coupled with her against us….


The independence of Texas was complete and absolute. It was an independence, not only in fact, but of right. No obligation of duty towards Mexico tended in the least degree to restrain our right to effect the desired recovery of the fair province once our own–whatever motives of policy might have prompted a more deferential consideration of her feelings and her pride, as involved in the question. If Texas became peopled with an American population; it was by no contrivance of our government, but on the express invitation of that of Mexico herself…


California will, probably, next fall away from the loose adhesion which, in such a country as Mexico, holds a remote province in a slight equivocal kind of dependence on the metropolis. Imbecile and distracted, Mexico never can exert any real governmental authority over such a country. The impotence of the one and the distance of the other, must make the relation one of virtual independence; unless, by stunting the province of all natural growth, and forbidding that immigration which can alone develop its capabilities and fulfil the purposes of its creation, tyranny may retain a military dominion, which is no government in the, legitimate sense of the term. In the case of California this is now impossible. The Anglo-Saxon foot is already on its borders. Already the advance guard of the irresistible army of Anglo-Saxon emigration has begun to pour down upon it, armed with the plough and the rifle, and marking its trail with schools and colleges, courts and representative halls, mills and meeting-houses. A population will soon be in actual occupation of California, over which it will be idle for Mexico to dream of dominion. They will necessarily become independent. All this without agency of our government, without responsibility of our people–in the natural flow of events, the spontaneous working of principles, and the adaptation of the tendencies and wants of the human race to the elemental circumstances in the midst of which they find themselves placed. And they will have a right to independence–to self-government–to the possession of the homes conquered from the wilderness by their own labors and dangers, sufferings and sacrifices-a better and a truer right than the artificial tide of sovereignty in Mexico, a thousand miles distant, inheriting from Spain a title good only against those who have none better. Their right to independence will be the natural right of self-government belonging to any community strong enough to maintain it–distinct in position, origin and character, and free from any mutual obligations of membership of a common political body, binding it to others by the duty of loyalty and compact of public faith. This will be their title to independence; and by this title, there can be no doubt that the population now fast streaming down upon California win both assert and maintain that independence. Whether they will then attach themselves to our Union or not, is not to be predicted with any certainty. Unless the projected railroad across the continent to the Pacific be carried into effect, perhaps they may not; though even in that case, the day is not distant when the Empires of the Atlantic and Pacific would again flow together into one, as soon as their inland border should approach each other. But that great work, colossal as appears the plan on its first suggestion, cannot remain long unbuilt. Its necessity for this very purpose of binding and holding together in its iron clasp our fast-settling Pacific region with that of the Mississippi valley–the natural facility of the route–the ease with which any amount of labor for the construction can be drawn in from the overcrowded populations of Europe, to be paid in die lands made valuable by the progress of the work itself–and its immense utility to the commerce of the world with the whole eastern Asia, alone almost sufficient for the support of such a road–these coast of considerations give assurance that the day cannot be distant which shall witness the conveyance of the representatives from Oregon and California to Washington within less time than a few years ago was devoted to a similar journey by those from Ohio; while the magnetic telegraph will enable the editors of the “San Francisco Union,” the “Astoria Evening Post,” or the “Nootka Morning News,” to set up in type the first half of the President’s Inaugural before the echoes of the latter half shall have died away beneath the lofty porch of the Capitol, as spoken from his lips.


Away, then, with all idle French talk of balances of power on the American Continent. There is no growth in Spanish America! Whatever progress of population there may be in the British Canadas, is only for their own early severance of their present colonial relation to the little island three thousand miles across the Atlantic; soon to be followed by Annexation, and destined to swell the still accumulating momentum of our progress. And whosoever may hold the balance, though they should cast into the opposite scale all the bayonets and cannon, not only of France and England, but of Europe entire, how would it kick the beam against the simple, solid weight of the two hundred and fifty, or three hundred millions–and American millions–destined to gather beneath the flutter of the stripes and stars, in the fast hastening year of the Lord 1945!


Doc 2: Cherokee Petition Protesting Removal, 1836


Native Americans responded differently to the constant encroachments and attacks of American settlers. Some resisted violently. Others worked to adapt to American culture and defend themselves using particularly American weapons like lawsuits and petitions. The Cherokee did more to adapt than perhaps any other Native American group, creating a written constitution modeled off the American constitution and adopting American culture in dress, speech, religion and economic activity. In this document, Cherokee leaders protested the loss of their territory using a very American tactic: petitioning.


The undersigned representatives of the Cherokee nation, east of the river Mississippi, impelled by duty, would respectfully submit, for the consideration of your honorable body, the following statement of facts: It will be seen from the numerous subsisting treaties between the Cherokee nation and the United States, that from the earliest existence of this government, the United States, in Congress assembled, received the Cherokees and their nation in to favor and protection; and that the chiefs and warriors, for themselves and all parts of the Cherokee nation to be under the protection of the United States of America, and of no other sovereign whatsoever: they also stipulated, that the said Cherokee nation will not hold any treaty with any foreign power, individual State, or with individuals of any State; that for, and in consideration of, valuable concessions made by the Cherokee nation, the United States solemnly guaranteed to said nations all their lands not ceded, and pledged the faith of the government, that “all white people who have intruded, or may hereafter intrude, on the lands reserved for the Cherokees, shall be removed by the United States, and proceeded against, according to the provisions of the act, passed 30th March, 1802,” entitled “An act to regulate trade and intercourse with the Indian tribes, and to preserve peace on the frontiers.” The Cherokees were happy and prosperous under a scrupulous observance of treaty stipulations by the government of the United States, and from the fostering hand extended over them, they made rapid advances in civilization, morals, and in the arts and sciences. Little did they anticipate, that when taught to think and feel as the American citizen, and to have with him a common interest, they were to be despoiled by their guardian, to become strangers and wanderers in the land of their fathers, forced to return to the savage life, and to seek a new home in the wilds of the far west, and that without their consent. An instrument purporting to be a treaty with the Cherokee people, has recently been made public by the President of the United States, that will have such an operation if carried into effect. This instrument, the delegation aver before the civilized world, and in the presence of Almighty God, is fraudulent, false upon its face, made by unauthorized individuals, without the sanction, and against the wishes of the great body of the Cherokee people. Upwards of fifteen thousand of those people have protested against it, solemnly declaring they will never acquiesce. The delegation would respectfully call the attention of your honorable body to their memorial and protest, with the accompanying documents, submitted to the Senate of the United States, on the subject of the alleged treaty, which are herewith transmitted….


PART 1: The following readings will provide some added context to this period.

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